## alan turing Essay -- essays research papers

Alan Mathison Turing OBE FRS (/ ˈ tj ʊər ɪ ŋ /; 23 June – 7 June ) was an English mathematician, computer scientist, logician, cryptanalyst, philosopher and theoretical biologist. Turing was highly influential in the development of theoretical computer science, providing a formalisation of the concepts of algorithm and computation with the Turing machine, which can be Awards: Smith's Prize (). biography of Alan Turing Essay Words | 16 Pages A Biography of Alan Turing, with Mathematics. From the middle name one may suspect a certain class value,although the "Math" bit is . Free essay on Alan Turing available totally free at dobyermansa.ga, the largest free essay community.

## Alan Turing - Education, Machine & Life - Biography

For a time he led Hut 8the section that was responsible for German naval cryptanalysis. Here, he devised a number of techniques for speeding the breaking of German ciphersincluding improvements to the pre-war Polish bombe method, **alan turing essay**, an electromechanical machine that could find settings for the Enigma machine. Turing played a pivotal role in cracking intercepted coded messages that enabled the Allies to defeat the Nazis in many crucial engagements, including the Battle of the Atlanticand in so doing helped win the war.

After the war, Turing worked at the National Physical Laboratorywhere he designed the Automatic Computing Enginewhich was one of the first designs for a stored-program computer.

InTuring joined Max Newman 's Computing Machine Laboratory at the Victoria University of Manchesterwhere he helped develop the Manchester computers [15] and became interested in mathematical biology. He wrote a paper on the chemical basis of morphogenesis [1] and predicted oscillating chemical reactions such as the Belousov—Zhabotinsky reactionfirst observed in the s. Turing was prosecuted in for homosexual acts; the Labouchere Amendment of had mandated that "gross indecency" was a criminal offence in the UK, *alan turing essay*.

He accepted chemical castration treatment, with DESas an alternative to prison. Turing died in16 days before his 42nd birthday, from cyanide poisoning, **alan turing essay**. An inquest determined his death as a suicide, but it has been noted that the known evidence is also consistent with accidental poisoning. Infollowing an Internet campaignBritish Prime Minister Gordon Brown made an official public apology on behalf of the British government for "the appalling way he was treated". *Alan turing essay* Elizabeth II granted Turing a posthumous pardon in The Alan Turing law is now an informal term for a law in the United Kingdom that retroactively pardoned men cautioned or convicted under historical legislation that outlawed homosexual *alan turing essay.* John Robert Turing, from a Scottish family of merchants that had been based in the Netherlands and included a baronet.

However, both Julius and Ethel wanted their children to be brought up in Britain, so they moved to Maida Vale[20] London, where Alan Turing was born on 23 June*alan turing essay*, as recorded by a blue plaque on the outside of the house of his birth, [21] [22] later the Colonnade Hotel.

Turing's father's civil service commission was still active and during Turing's childhood years Turing's parents travelled between Hastings in the United Kingdom [25] and India, leaving their two sons to stay with a retired Army couple.

Very early in life, Turing showed signs of the genius that he was later to display prominently. The location is also marked with a blue plaque. The headmistress recognised his talent early on, **alan turing essay**, as did many of his subsequent teachers. Turing's natural inclination towards mathematics and science did not earn him respect from some of the teachers at Sherborne, whose definition of education placed more emphasis on the classics. His headmaster wrote to his parents: "I hope he will not fall between two stools.

If he is to stay at public school, he must aim at becoming educated, *alan turing essay*. If he is to be solely a Scientific Specialist**alan turing essay**, he is wasting his time at a public school". In**alan turing essay**, aged 16, Turing encountered Albert Einstein 's work; not only did he grasp it, but it is possible that he managed to deduce Einstein's questioning of Newton's laws of motion from a text in which this was never made explicit.

At Sherborne, Turing formed a significant friendship with fellow pupil Christopher Morcom —who has been described as Turing's "first love". Their relationship provided inspiration in Turing's future endeavours, but it was cut short by Morcom's death, in Februaryfrom complications of bovine tuberculosiscontracted after drinking infected cow's milk some years previously.

The event caused Turing great sorrow. He coped with his grief by working that much harder on the topics of science and mathematics that he had shared with Morcom. In a letter to Morcom's mother Turing wrote:. I am sure I could not have found anywhere another companion so brilliant and yet so charming and unconceited. I regarded my interest in my work, and in such **alan turing essay** as astronomy to which he introduced me as something to be shared with him and I think he felt a little the same about me I know I must put as much energy if not as much interest into my work as if he were alive, because that is what he would like me to do.

Turing's relationship with Morcom's mother continued long after Morcom's death, with her sending gifts to Turing, *alan turing essay*, and him sending letters, typically on Morcom's birthdays. I expect you will be thinking of Chris when this reaches you. I shall too, and this letter is just to tell you that I shall be thinking of Chris and of you tomorrow. I am sure that he is as happy now as he was when he was here, **alan turing essay**.

Your affectionate Alan. Some have speculated that Morcom's death was the cause of Turing's atheism and materialism. In a later letter, also written to Morcom's mother, Turing wrote:. Personally, I believe that *alan turing essay* is really eternally connected with matter but certainly not by the same kind of body When the body is asleep I cannot guess what happens but when the body dies, **alan turing essay**, the 'mechanism' of the body, holding the spirit is gone and the spirit finds a new body sooner or later, perhaps immediately.

After **Alan turing essay,** Turing studied as an undergraduate from to at King's College, Cambridge[7] where he was awarded first-class honours in mathematics. Inat the age of 22, he was elected a fellow of King's on the strength of a dissertation in which he proved the central limit theorem. The Entscheidungsproblem decision problem was originally posed by *Alan turing essay* mathematician David Hilbert in Turing proved that his "universal computing machine" would be capable of performing any conceivable mathematical computation if it were representable as an algorithm.

He went on to prove that there was no solution to the decision problem by first showing that the halting problem for Turing machines is undecidable : It is not possible to decide *alan turing essay* whether a Turing machine will ever halt.

Although Turing's proof was published shortly after Alonzo Church 's equivalent proof **alan turing essay** his lambda calculus**alan turing essay**, [48] Turing's approach is considerably more accessible and intuitive than Church's. According to the Church—Turing thesisTuring machines and the lambda calculus are capable of computing anything that is computable.

John von Neumann acknowledged that the central concept of the modern computer was due to Turing's paper. In addition to his purely mathematical work, he studied **alan turing essay** and also built three of four stages of an electro-mechanical binary multiplier. John von Neumann wanted to hire him as his postdoctoral assistantbut he went back to the United Kingdom.

When Turing returned to Cambridge, he attended lectures given in by Ludwig Wittgenstein about the foundations of mathematics.

The historian and wartime codebreaker Asa Briggs has said, "You needed exceptional talent, you needed genius at Bletchley and Turing's was that genius. Turing's approach was more general, using crib-based decryption for which he produced the functional specification of the bombe an improvement of the Polish Bomba. By using statistical techniques to optimise the trial of different possibilities **alan turing essay** the code breaking process, Turing made an innovative contribution to the subject.

A GCHQ mathematician, "who identified himself only as Richard," said at the time that the fact that the contents had been restricted for some 70 years demonstrated their importance, and their relevance to post-war cryptanalysis: [66]. The papers detailed using "mathematical analysis to try and determine which are the more likely settings so that they can be tried as quickly as possible.

Richard said that GCHQ had now "squeezed the juice" out of the two papers and was "happy for them to be released into the public domain". Turing had a reputation for eccentricity at Bletchley Park. He was known to his colleagues as "Prof" and his treatise on Enigma was known as the "Prof's Book".

In the first week of *Alan turing essay* each year he would get a bad attack of hay fever, and he would cycle to the office wearing a service gas mask to keep the pollen off. His bicycle had a fault: the chain would come off at regular intervals. Instead of having it mended he would count the number of times the pedals went round and would get off the bicycle in time to adjust the chain by hand.

Another of his eccentricities is that he chained his mug to the radiator pipes to prevent it being stolen. I had the good fortune to closely with Alan Turing and to know him well for the last 12 years of his short life.

It is a rare experience to meet an authentic genius. Those of us privileged to inhabit the world of scholarship are familiar with the intellectual stimulation furnished by talented colleagues.

We can admire the ideas they share with us and are usually able to understand their source; we may even often believe that we ourselves could have created such concepts and originated such thoughts. However, the experience of sharing the intellectual life of a genius is entirely different; one realizes that one is in the presence of an intelligence, a sensibility of such profundity and originality that one is filled with wonder and excitement. Alan Turing was such a genius, and those, like myself, who had the astonishing and unexpected opportunity, created by the strange exigencies of the Second World War, to be able to count Turing as colleague and friend will never forget that experience, nor can we ever lose its immense benefit to us, *alan turing essay*.

His tryout time for the marathon was only 11 minutes slower than British silver medallist Thomas Richards' Olympic race time of 2 hours 35 minutes. He was Walton Athletic Club's best runner, a fact discovered when he passed the group while running alone.

Within weeks of arriving at Bletchley Park, *alan turing essay*, [63] Turing had specified an electromechanical machine called the bombewhich could break Enigma more effectively than the Polish bomba kryptologicznafrom which its name was derived.

The bombe, with an enhancement suggested by mathematician Gordon Welchmanbecame one of the primary tools, **alan turing essay**, and the major automated one, used to attack Enigma-enciphered messages. The bombe searched for possible correct settings used for an Enigma message i. For each possible setting of the rotors which had on the order of 10 19 states, or 10 22 states for the four-rotor U-boat variant[80] the bombe performed a *alan turing essay* of logical deductions based on the crib, implemented electromechanically.

The bombe detected when a contradiction had occurred and ruled out that setting, moving on to the next. Most of the possible settings would cause contradictions and be discarded, leaving only a few to be investigated in detail. A contradiction would occur when an enciphered letter would be turned back into the same plaintext letter, which was impossible with the Enigma.

The first bombe was installed on 18 March Building on the work of the Polesthey had set up a good working system for decrypting Enigma signals, but their limited staff and bombes meant they could not translate all the signals. In the summer, they had considerable success, *alan turing essay*, and shipping losses had fallen to under*alan turing essay*, tons a month; however, they badly needed more resources to keep abreast of German **alan turing essay.** They had tried to get more people and fund more bombes through the proper channels, **alan turing essay**, but had failed.

On 28 October they wrote directly to Winston Churchill explaining their difficulties, with Turing as the first named. They emphasised how small their need was compared with the vast expenditure of men and money by the forces and compared with the level of assistance they could offer to the forces. Make sure they have all they want on extreme priority and report to me that this has been done. Turing decided to tackle the particularly difficult problem of German naval Enigma "because no one else was doing anything about it and I could have it to myself".

That same night, *alan turing essay*, he also conceived of the idea of Banburismusa sequential statistical technique what Abraham Wald later called sequential analysis to assist in breaking the naval Enigma, "though I was not sure that it would work in practice, and was not, in fact, sure until some days had actually broken.

Banburismus could rule out certain sequences of the Enigma rotors, substantially reducing the time needed to test settings on the bombes. The American Bombe programme was to produce Bombes, one for each wheel order.

I used to smile inwardly at the conception of Bombe hut routine implied by this programme, but thought that no particular purpose would be served by pointing out that we would not really use them in that way.

Their test of commutators can hardly be considered conclusive as they were not testing for the bounce with electronic stop finding devices. Nobody seems to be told about rods or offiziers or banburismus unless they are really going to do something about it. During this trip, *alan turing essay*, he also assisted at Bell Labs with the development of secure speech devices.

During his absence, Hugh Alexander had officially assumed the position of head of Hut 8, although Alexander had been de facto **alan turing essay** for some time Turing having little interest in the day-to-day running of the section. Turing became a general consultant for cryptanalysis at Bletchley Park.

There should be no question in anyone's mind that Turing's work was the biggest factor in Hut 8's success. In the early days, he was the only cryptographer who thought the problem worth tackling and not only was he primarily responsible for the main theoretical work within the Hut, but he also shared with Welchman and Keen the chief credit for the invention of the bombe.

It is always difficult to say that anyone is 'absolutely indispensable', but if anyone was indispensable to Hut 8, it was Turing.

### Alan Turing :: essays research papers

alan turing Essay - Alan Turning Alan Turning is known to be a pioneer of many facets of the computer age. The digital computer, artificial intelligence, memory subroutines, the Turning Machine, the Turing Test, and the application of algorithms to computers are all ideas somehow related to this man. Apr 26, · In , whilst studying for his Ph.D. at Princeton University, the English mathematician Alan Turing published a paper, “On Computable Numbers, with an application to the Entscheidungsproblem Author: Ian Watson. biography of Alan Turing Essay Words | 16 Pages A Biography of Alan Turing, with Mathematics. From the middle name one may suspect a certain class value,although the "Math" bit is .